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Nasal Congestion in Cold and Cough

Multiple causes are responsible for the formation of nasal congestion in human beings. Right from microbial infections to medications and allergens can cause the condition of nasal congestion. This article presents a brief description of nasal congestion.

Rhinorrhea - Runny Nose in Cold and Cough

Rhinorrhea is a common trouble which occurs along with Cold and cough conditions and a lot of water like fluid flows from the nose tip and many a times a nose block occurs.

Common Cold - The Sore Throat

The Sore Throat is perhaps one of the most common type of infections amongst all populace of the world and is the most easily affecting infections and troubles.

Antimicrobial drugs: Their classification and resistance development

Microbial infections are the most life-threatening infections which require antimicrobial agents for their eradication. In the current practices of anti-infective therapy, those agents having a broad spectrum of activity and diverse therapeutic prospects are the most popular anti-microbial agents. The present article was focused on the various classes of antibiotics, their mechanism of action and the mechanisms by which the resistance was developed against those antibiotics.

Sinusitis: Classifications, symptoms and treatment.

Sinusitis is an inflammation of the air filled cavities within the nostrils and the nasal passage of the nose. It can be caused by pathogenic micro organism (virus, bacteria or fungus) and also by allergies and chemical fume.

What is Dehydration its signs and symptoms and treatment?

The term dehydration is defined as a condition that can occur due to loss of body fluids, usually water, exceeds the amount that is taken in. In dehydration, more fluid that is taken in through drinking. Medically, dehydration means a person has lost enough fluid resulting inability to function normally & begins to produce symptoms related to the fluid loss.

What is Bell's palsy its clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis?

Bell's palsy is defined as a unilateral facial nerve (7th cranial nerve) paralysis which leads to the inability to control facial muscles on the affected side. The disease is idiopathic & self limiting with acute onset. There are so many conditions that can cause facial paralysis such as brain tumour, stroke, and Lyme disease etc. If no specific cause is identified, then the condition is known as Bell's palsy.

What is Headache its types and classification?

A Headache or cephalalgia is pain anywhere in the head or neck and perhaps the most common symptom of a number of different conditions. It is one of the most common locations of pain in the body with many causes. The brain tissues itself is not sensitive to pain due to lack of pain receptors.

What is Rheumatoid Arthritis its aetiology and clinical features?

Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic inflammatory polyarthritis affecting mainly the perpheral joints, running a prolonged course with exacerbations and remissions and accompained by a general systemic disturbance. The disease is characterised by swelling of the synovial membrane & periarticular tissues, subchondral osteoporosis,erosion of cartilage and bone & wasting of the associated muscles.

What is Osteoarthritis its Aetiology, Diagnosis & Clinical Features.

Osteoarthritis is a disease characterised by degeneration of the articular cartilage and the formation of bony outgrowths at the edges of the affected joints with joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, locking and sometimes an effusion. Mostly one or two of the longer joints are involved.Osteoarthritis occur in elderly people in both sex but may appear at any age in a joint which has been damaged by disease or injury.

What is Gout, what are its clinical features and treatment?

Gout is a disease characterised by recurrent attacks of acute pain and swelling first affecting only single joint, mostly metatarso-phalangeal joint of big toe, later becoming polyarticular.It is caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood which crystalize and deposited in the joints & surrounding tissues.

Pregnancy and Iron Deficiency Anaemia and its complications.

Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world and its prevalence in developed & developing countries is more than 50%. In India the incidence of anaemia is highest in the world and common in pregnant women and pre-school going children. Iron deficiency anaemia is due to improper dietary iron & poor bioavailabilityof dietary iron.

Management of Diabetes Mellitus and diets in diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterised by Hyperglycaemia which is difficult to cure. Management of D M is done for keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible without giving undue complications to the patient. This can usually be done by close dietary management, exercise and use of proper medications.

Diabetes Mellitus, its classification and clinical features.

Diabetes Mellitus is clinical condition characterised by hyperglycaemia(high blood sugar), due to deficiency or decreased effect of insulin. Hyperglycaemia produces the classical symptoms of polyurea, polydipsia and polyphasia. The disease is chronic and affects the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, fat, water, and electrolytes sometimes with severe result.

What is Hepatitis E or ET-Non A Non B Hepatitis and its Epidemiological features?

Hepatitis E or Enterically transmitted Non A Non B (ET-Non A Non B) heptitis is a viral infection commonly caused by use of contaminated drinking water with sewage through faeco-oral route and person to person among household contacts. It is the most common cause of Hepatitis in the South East Asia & the Indian subcontinents.It occurs in two epidemiological forms,the epidemic and the sporadic hepatitis.

What is Hepatitis in Pregnancy its consequences in Mother and in Neonate?

Hepatitis in majority of cases is a viral infection of liver with inflammation and necrosis of hepatic cells causing clinical, biological and histological changes. In prenancy jaundice may occur due to hepatic and non hepatic causes. There are certain specific conditions like cholestatic jaundice & acute fatty liver occur in pregnancy.

What are Preventive measures of Myocardial Infarction its risk factors and management?

Myocardial infarction is a major killer of well settled class of people and intellectuals in India when they are at the prime of their carrier and life. The rising incidence, is due to sudden change in the status of life. the increasing graph can be prevented by proper health education. The main principle of prevention of ischemia/infarction is, to minimise the work load of heart and enhance the supply of pure (oxygenated) blood by removing risk factors resulting Heart Attack.

What is Myocardial Infarction ? What are Signs, Symptoms and Management of Myocardial Infarction ?

Myocardial Infarction is commonly known as Heart attack, due to blockage of coronary artery and insufficient blood supply to a part of the heart causing death and necrosis of cardiac cells. The coronary artery blockage usually occurs by atherosclerotic plague (which is an unstable cllection of lipids and macrophages)in the wall of a coronary artery. This leads to ischemia and oxygen storage, if untreated, can cause death of heart muscle tissue (Myocardium).

What is Serum Hepatitis or Hepatitis B? Mode of transmission of Hepatit and its signs and symptoms.

Serum Hepatitis or Hepatitis B is a systemic viral infection with inflammation of liver and necrosis of liver cells which leads to clinical, biochemical, and histological changes. It is a major health problem throughout the world affecting several hundred millions of persons every year.It is responsible for large number of morbidity & mortality both from acute infection & from its complications.There is no animal reservoir of serum hepatitis seen sofar.

What is Peptic Ulcer its risk factors and Clinical features?

Peptic Ulcer is mucosal erosion (ulceration) of the inner lining of gastro intestinal tract, i.e. the lower end of the oesophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the small intestine anastomosed to the stomach and is caused by the acid-pepsin digestion of the mucosa. If peptic ulcer is located in the stomach it is called a gastric ulcer and when in the duodenum is called duodenal ulcer.Peptic ulcer is a painful condition and is more common in persons with habit of hurry, worry and curry.

What is Neurosis

Neurosis is a presentation of today's world with increasing levels of stress in the living standards of the day. Stress management is not always possible for all and can lead to disturbed life and with feeling of suffering from various diseases when actually one does not suffer from any disease and also the pathological investigation reports also report normal findings. Neurosis comes up with more frequency in day to day at the clinics.

What is Pernicious Anaemia its causes and clinical menifestations?

Pernicious anaemia or Addison's anaemia is a slow and insidious clinical condition which is classified under group of megaloblastic anaemia. The disease is caused by failure in the secretion of intrinsic factor by the gastric parietal cells and inability to absorb vitamin B12 which is most commn cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in adults. Pernicious anaemia occurs between the ages of 45 to 65 years and rare before the age of 30.Females dominate males in this disease.

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